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Dhamma Lesson (39)

Right Mindfulness (satipaṭṭhana)

Contemplation of the dhamma ( Dhammānupassanā )


Four Foundations of Mindfulness  (satipaṭṭhāna)

1-Mindfulness in contemplation of the  body (kayanupassanā)- explained in lesson (36)

2-Mindfulness  in contemplation of feelings (Vedanānupassanā)

3-Mindfulness in contemplation of consciousness (Cittānupassanā)

4-Mindfulness in contemplation of mental objects. (Dhammānupassanā)

continuation from Dhamma lesson(36 & 37&38)


Contemplation of the Mind-objects

( clear comprehension of every mind-object (dhamma) as it appears )

The Buddha taught 5 ways for the contemplation of the true nature

of things as follows

17-Contemplation of The Five Hindrances -( nivarana)

18-Contemplation of The Five Aggregates  -

( explained in lesson 14&15)

19-Contemplation of the sense bases-

The Six Internal and Six External Bases

(explained in lesson 16 to 21&27 )

20-Contemplation of The Seven Factors of Enlightenment

(explained in lesson 32 )

21-Contempalation of Truth (sacca)

17-Contemplation of Five Hindrances

How do hindrances obstruct our practice?

They hinder or obstruct concentration and wisdom.

They obstruct the attainment of Nibbana.

What are Hindrances?

8 metal factors are included among the hindrances.

There are 5 types of hindrances-

1- desire for sensual pleasures (In Pali -kāmacchanda)

2- hatred or anger  (In Pali- byāpāda)

3- sloth (laziness) and torpor( drowsiness)  (In Pali-thina middha)

( In original pali: restlessness and worry are combined as a single hindrance).

4- restlessness and anxiety or worry (In Pali- uddhacca and kukkucca)

5- doubt (In Pali-vicikicchā)

Above five hindrances are the major obstacles to the attainment of Jhānas.

6- ignorance (In Pali-avijja)

The 6th hindrance is the major obstacle to  the arising of wisdom.

How to practice for hindrances?

Yonisomanasikāra - proper attention of the mind is essential.

One needs to be continuously carrying on noting and awareness of

the arising and cessation of Nivarana.

-- mindful as "desire"," desire"

While noting the rising and falling of the abdomen, desire for sensual

pleasures arise, one must note carefully with mindfulness as " desire. desire"

--------- mindful as "angry", " angry"

In the same way,

-when hatred or anger arises, it should be noted " hatred, hatred" or " anger, anger".

-- mindful as" lazy, sleepy"

-when sloth and torpor arises, they too should be noted as

"sloth, sloth" " torpor,torpor" and so on.

-- mindful  as " restless"," restless"

-when restlessness, anxiety or worry resulting from misdeeds or unwholesome speech

--mindful  as " doubt"," doubt"

and doubt about the existence of the Triple Gem or one's own practice

arise in the mind, one should note them with great effort and carefully

and they will dissipate.

What did the  Buddha instruct us to know?

The Buddha instructed us to know what arises internally in the mind,

such as desire and ill will. When  one knows clearly such mental states

as they truly are, they will dissipate. When full enlightenment is attained,

all hindrances will be eliminated.

At the moment of noting, the arising and passing away of all hindrances

can be clearly known. With deep concentration and wisdom,all hindrances

will vanish due to continuous awareness and knowing  with deep

concentrated mind and wisdom.

18-Contemplation of The Five Aggregates - ( explained in lesson 14&15)

To practice Vipassana, you should be familiar with the 5 aggregates

1-matter aggregate  (Rpa in Pali  = rpakkhandha)

2-feeling aggregate (Vedanā in Pali = vedanakkhandhā)

3-perception aggregate        (Saññā in Pali =Saññākkhandhā )

4-volitional formations aggregate  (Sankhāra in Pali = Sankhārakkhandhā)

5-conciousness aggregate    (Vi ññāna in Pali = Vi ññānakkhandhā)

1st aggregate -

The aggregate of matter (Rpa in Pali ) is called rpakkhandha .

When noting " going", " standing", " sitting", "rising", " falling", one will come

to realize that these actions are matter.Matter cannot cognize and arises

and passes away instantaneously.

2nd aggregate -

The aggregate of feelings (Vedanā in Pali) is called vedanakkhandhā .

When noting " pain" , " pleasure",  or " neutral" feeling, one may come to

realize that this is simply sensation which arises and passes away quickly.

3rd aggregate-

The aggregate of perception (Saññā in Pali) is called


When being aware of perception, one may realize that it is only perception

that perceives form, sound, odor etc:and that it too arises and passes away.

4th aggregate-

The mental formation aggregate (Sankhāra in Pali)  is called


Except perception and feeling, the remaining 50 mental factors belong to

this aggregate. If one notes carefully  when they become prominent,

one will not fail to see that they are also impermanent meaning they disappear

right away  after arising.

5th aggregate-

The consciousness (Vi ññāna in Pali) aggregate  is called


While noting " thinking" ,"knowing" or " realizing",

one may also come to

know that this is consciousness. It is also impermanent

since it arises and

passes away incessantly.

By noting and contemplating the arising and passing of these 5 aggregates,

one may attain stages of enlightenment and become Ariya, noble person.

19-Contemplation of the sense bases-

The Six Internal and Six External Bases

(explained in lesson 16 to 21&27 )( āyatana, dhātu, and nāma rupa)

- - ----

- - ---

- ------

- ----


6 External objects 6 Internal objects 6 types of consciousness ( mind )

1-visible objects       1- eye base          1- eye - consciousness -- seeing

2- hearing objects    2- ear base           2-ear - consciousness -- hearing

3- smelling objects   3-nose base          3- nose - consciousness--smelling

4-tasting objects      4- tongue base      4- tongue- consciousness--tasting

5-tangible objects     5- body base        5- body- consciousness-- touching

6-mental objects       6- heart base       6- mind-consciousness-- thinking

(Mental objects are six fold-

sensitive matter, subtle matter,citta-consciousness,cetasika- mental factors,

Nibbana and concepts.)

These objects may be past, present, future, or time-freed and can appear

at the mind door for all processes.

By noting "seeing" "seeing" at the very moment of seeing an object,

one will know with mindfulness exactly the eye base, the visible object and

the seeing consciousness. If one can not note what is seen as " seeing" or

realize the true nature of seeing,

sensual desire may arise. In such case, one should note the sensual desire.

By the power of mindfulness, one can see the arising and passing away of

sensual desire.

Similarly, one who note " hearing"," smelling","tasting", " touching",

"thinking"  when these experiences occur, knows the base , the object

and the corresponding consciousness of the present experience.

If one cannot note in time, defilement ( greed, anger, delusions) may

arise. However, one can then note the defilement and experience

both the arising and ceasing of defilement.

Defilement (kilesas) ae obstacles in meditation practice and are

likened to the chains which keep bulls bound.

In the same way, sentient beings dwelling continuouslyin the cycle

of rebirths are bound to it by these defilements.


20--Contemplation of The Seven Factors of Enlightenment

( explained in lesson 32 )

There are 7 enlightenment factors (bojjhanga) leading to the realization

of Liberation ( Nibbana) are as follows:

1- Mindfulness ( satisambojjhanga)

2-Investigation  of Dhamma ( Dhammavicaya sambojjhanga)

3-Effort (viriya sambojjhanga)

4-Rapture ( pitisambojjhanga)

5-Tranquility (passaddhisambojjhanga)

6-Concentration ( samādhisambojjhanga)

7-Equanimity ( upekkhāsambojjhanga)

Upon initial contemplation, these seven enlightenment factors have

not yet arisen. If noting is not continuous and concentration is weak,

the mindfulness enlightenment factor will not arise.

---------needs balanced mind, concentrated mind to develop insights

It is only with developed insights ( udayabbaya-ñāna and higher) that

these factors come into existence. It means when one experiences

the arising and passing away of all mental and material phenomena

( udayabbaya-ñāna ) through right mindfulness, these seven factors

( bojjhanga) arise.

Whenever these factors  leading to realization or knowing  appearance

and disappearance , the investigation of Dhamma enlightenment factor

will arise, and thus, the first stage, second, third and fourth stage of

enlightenment may  be attained.


21-Contempalation of Truth (sacca)

There are 4 Noble Truths called sacca in pali.

One knows as it really is " This is suffering".

(dukkha sacca)

One knows as it really is " This is the cause of suffering"

( samudaya sacca)

One knows as it really is " This is the cessation of suffering"

( Niroda sacca)

One knows as it really is " This is the wayto the cessation of 

suffering" (Magga sacca)

All material and mental phenomena of all sentient beings are

true suffering. ( dukkha sacca)


All phenomena are afflicted with old age, disease, death, bodily pain,

mental pain and so on.


birth, old age, disease, death, bodily and mental pain - having body and mind-all  are suffering,

These are said to be " dreadful suffering" due to the incessant

oppression of arising and passing away at each moment.

Pain arises from both the material body and consciousness.

If there were no material body, there would be no material pain.

If there were no consciousness, though having a material body,

there would be no painful sensation either.

For example- though inanimate materials such as rocks, stones, posts

and lumps of earth are burned or beaten or cut off, they experience

no pan sensation. Because sentient beings have both physical and

mental qualities, they have both physical and mental pain.

These material and mental phenomena are indeed true suffering.


In each existence, the material and mental qualities are present.

The duration of their existence is very short.

They only exist for just one tiny fraction of a second and then

vanish completely. If new physical and mental qualities do not

take place, death will come surely and suddenly. How dreadful

to depend on such things! For this reason, also they are real suffering.

Only  mind and matter phenomena. NO YOU, NO I , NO He , No She

Without knowing the true nature of material and mental phenomena,

common  people never see the frightening nature of their existence.

Even though they practice, they can not see the nature until they

see phenomena arising and passing away constantly.

Only when they continuously develop concentration and Vipassanā

insight until enlightenment, can they see clearly that physical and

mental phenomena are suffering.

With reference to this, the Buddha said as follows

Idam dukkhanti yathā-bhutam pajānāti.

One knows as it really is " This is suffering".

When insight into suffering, the attachment to mental and physical

phenomena becomes less and less. Thus, craving as the cause of

suffering (samudaya sacca) is dispelled in momentary way.

-mindfulness will give you emotional detachment from suffering and have peace of mind.

Then, the temporary cessation of suffering (tadanga nirodha sacca)

is experienced. Thus, they develop vipassana in terms of

magga-sacca ( vipassana magga ), the path leading to the enlightenment.

While observing the phenomena arising and passing away constantly,

one's vipassana insight becomes mature enough for the realization

of Nibbana. Thus, the  true cessation of suffering ( niroda-sacca)

is experienced with the attainment of magga-enlightenment.

At this very moment, one accomplishes the realization of suffering

( dukkha sacca), the eradication of the craving that is the cause of

suffering ( samudaya sacca), and the development of the true path

(magga sacca). Thus, one simultaneously realizes all the Four Noble Truths.

When the first stage of enlightenment is thus  achieved, one is free

from the four lower planes of existence forever.

This is a brief explanation of the contemplation of the Four Noble

Truths (Catusaccadhammānupassanā).

One must be replete with moral percepts and mindfulness and

put forth great effort to gain clear understanding and ultimate

freedom from suffering. Being guarded by these precepts and

wholesome actions, the mature mind gradually developed.

Notes for the Vipassanā meditator

A meditator - who is mindful at the moment of seeing, hearing,

touching,feeling , thinking or knowing sense objects, is making

an effort to prevent defilements or unwholesome thoughts from


One is also endeavouring to eradicate unwholesome actions,

speech or thoughts that have already arisen.

The meditator is at the same time striving to develop the higher

stages of Vipassana knowledge and the Noble Path,

that is merits which have not yet arisen.

Benefit of Mindfulness

Purification of mind- The 7 stages of purification-&

The 10 insight knowledges

By practicing right mindfulness (samā-sati) with clear comprehension

( pañña),ie insight meditation, the following seven stages of

purification are to be attained in sequence.

The first six stages are mundane, the last is supramundane.

For seriously learning Abhidhamma  and practicing vipassana yogis

Read more...


Dhamma Lesson (38)

Right Mindfulness (satipaṭṭhana)

Contemplation of consciousness


Four Foundations of Mindfulness  (satipaṭṭhāna)

1-Mindfulness in contemplation of the  body (kayanupassanā)-

explained in lesson (36)

2-Mindfulness  in contemplation of feelings (Vedanānupassanā)

3-Mindfulness in contemplation of consciousness (Cittānupassanā)

4-Mindfulness in contemplation of mental objects. (Dhammānupassanā)

continuation from Dhamma lesson(36 & 37)


3- Cittānupassanā

16-Contemplation of the Consciousness

( clear comprehension of every state of the mind )

16 types of consciousness are described here.


1-  with craving     2- without craving  ( Pali: sarāga citta & vītarāga citta)


3-  with anger     4- without anger ( Pali: sadosa citta  &vītadosa citta)


5-  with delusion    6- without delusion ( Pali: samoha citta & vītamoha citta)



7-  with idle or indolent ,lazy 8- with restlessness

( Pali: Sakhitta citta & vīkkhitta-citta)


9- with concentration     

10- without concentration( samāhita-citta& asamāhita citta)


11- being free from kilesa for a moment       12- not free from kilesa

(Pali: vimutta citta & avimutta citta)

For only those people who are endowed with Jhāna


13- mind with Jhāna         

14- mind without Jhāna (Pali:mahaggata & amahaggata citta)


15-with rupa-Jhāna (sauttara citta)

16- with arupa-Jhāna (anuttara citta)

How to note or know the mind?

Please Note -quick arising and passing away of mental phenomena

If one's mind is affected with lust or passion,

one should note at the moment of its arising as"wanting or wishing to have" etc.

By noting and becoming aware only once, this kind of mind is likely

to be eradicated or subdued. If it is not yet subdued, it should be noted

at every moment of its arising. Eventually it will be got rid of .

Likewise, the mind which is free from desire,lust or passion,that mind should be

noted as " free from desire " at the moment of its arising as it occurs.

Similarly, when the consciousness with anger arises, it should be noted with

mindfulness as " angry" angry". When the consciousness with anger disappears,

the consciousness free of anger should be contemplate.


One should also note mental actions such as imagining, thinking ,

pondering, reflecting, raging, despairing, grieving, rejoicing and so on.

Stream of mind with its associated mental factors arising and disappearing without interval.

One who contemplates and notes the mind at every moment of its occurrence

will realize as the mind with its associated mental factors are occurring one

after another without interval, in continuity, connected or linked together.

When wisdom arise, there  is no such thing as " an individual, a sentient being"

, " I" , " it is mine" , " female" , " male" and that there is mere act of knowing

and contemplating the object of consciousness of sense object.

Since mindfulness becomes manifested only in the mind that contemplates and

knows the sense-object without reaching the state of appearance,form, and figure

( sankhāra, ghana, nimitta) which are all concepts( paññatti), mindfulness and

knowledge after becoming enhanced at later stages step by step progressively,

occurs with keenness and vigor.

Clinging attachment is slowly got rid of. This is in conformity with the

" atthi cittanti vā panassa sati paccupatthitā hoti " in pali .


The one who keeps noting of quick arising and passing away of all mental

and physical phenomena and realizing as the process of arising and disappearing

of nama and rupa, nothing else, but series of sorrow and suffering will be able to

reach the stages of insights leading to the enlightenment.

to be continued in Dhamma lesson (39 )contemplation of Dhamma


Dhamma Lesson (37)

Right Mindfulness (satipaṭṭhana)

Contemplation of feeling


Four Foundations of Mindfulness  (satipaṭṭhāna)

1-Mindfulness in contemplation of the  body (kayanupassanā)- explained in lesson (36)

2-Mindfulness  in contemplation of feelings (Vedanānupassanā)

3-Mindfulness in contemplation of consciousness (Cittānupassanā)

4-Mindfulness in contemplation of mental objects. (Dhammānupassanā)

continuation from Dhamma lesson(36)

- Happy - Unhappy - Neutral Feelings

2- -Vedanānupassanā

15-Contemplation of the feelings

( clear comprehension of  every feeling whether good , bad or indifferent whichever becomes obvious)

While focusing on the home object, either pleasure,displeasure or neutral (neither pleasure nor displeasure) feeling arise and become prominent, one should focus the attention right away on the feeling.

Happy- note as happy feeling

If the feeling is pleasant- one should note as" pleasant ". ( sukavedanā)

-Unhappy- note as  unhappy feeling

If the feeling is unpleasant- one should note as" unpleasant ".(dukkha vedanā)

- Neutral - note as neutral feeling( equanimity)

If the feeling is neutral- one should note as" neutral ".( upekkhā vedanā).

Neutral feeling is neither pleasant nor unpleasant. It is inconspicuous and is indeed hard to know or difficult to be perceived by the knowledge which contemplates and notes.

Continue noting in and out breath or rising and falling of abdomen.

And right after the feeling disappears, the rising and falling of abdomen or in breath and out breath as the home object should again be noted.

How to contemplate painful bodily sensation.


While focusing on the home object ( noting of breathing in and out or noting of the rising and falling of the abdomen) , the pain in the body may arise, intensify and seem unbearable. In that case, one should first attempt to withstand these unpleasant sensations with mindfulness.

- keep noting the unpleasant feeling as long as possible

This means one should keep on noting the unpleasant feeling for as long as possible.

If one can patiently maintain the noting of the painful feeling, it may disappear completely.

Insight may develop at this time  as" impermanence".

After the pain disappears, one should go back to the home object of rising and falling of the abdomen or in and out breathing.


If unpleasant feeling becomes unbearable, one can change the posture slowly with mindfulness.

If unpleasant feeling remains and becomes unbearable, one can change the bodily posture which must be done slowly with mindfulness.

---breathing in and out

After the pain disappears, one should go back to the home object of rising and falling of the abdomen or breathing in and out.

-depression - keep note as depression

When strong state of despair or depression (dukkha vedanā) arise and become prominent, one should note accordingly as" despair" "despair "or "depression, depression" and so on. When these unpleasant states of mind disappear, one should return to the noting of breathing in and out or the rising and falling of the abdomen.

- joyful - note as joyful

In the same way, when pleasant sensations arise in the body, each should be noted accordingly such as " pleasant " , " pleasant".

When joyful feeling arise in the mind, keep noting as " joyful" " joyful" .

With increasing wisdom and concentrated mind, this pleasant feeling may increase  or decrease naturally and disappear .

When these pleasant or  unpleasant states of mind disappear, one should return to the noting of breathing in and out or the rising and falling of the abdomen.


The feeling neither pleasant nor unpleasant is called neutral feeling

( upekkhā vedanā) that frequently occurs in bodily and mental processes. It can be even hardly identified as feelings.

When concentration and wisdom become stronger,however, this neutral feeling becomes apparent at the moment right after the  disappearance of pleasant or unpleasant feelings and before the appearance of pleasant or unpleasant sensations

This neutral feeling becomes obvious especially when the insight into arising and passing away( udaya-bbaya-ñāṇa) becomes mature and the insight into disappearance comes into existence ( bhanga ñāṇa).


When concentration and wisdom become strong, the one who develops deep mindfulness will clearly see all feelings arise and pass away, one after another.


By contemplating this arising and passing away of feeling, seeing clearly in each moment , feelings come one after another , arise ( the origination of vedana is called Samudaya in Pali) and pass away ( the dissolution of vedana is called vaya in Pali )one after another.It is beneficial and favorable to see things in this way, one  may attain the stages of enlightenment.

Mindfulness with awareness takes place at every moment of noting the nature of sensation,

when the knowledge becomes mature, it can be perceived , realized and determined with personal knowledge that the expression " I am happy, good, delighted is only a denomination i.e the name that is given. There is no such thing as " I" or a " sentient being" who is capable of feeling happy, good and delightful.

There is ,however, some sort of happiness, pleasantness and gladness which arise momentarily while attention is concentrated on good, pleasant and agreeable sensations.

There is no such thing as " an individual", " a being" , " I " , " my property , or my own, female, male but there is a conglomeration of good , bad, and neutral sensations.

Vedanā ( feeling )only feels the sensation by giving attention to the good and pleasant sensation. There is no such a person that feels sensation or experienced the pleasant sensation.The same applies to unpleasant and indifferent feeling.

When the knowledge of Vipassanā become very much strengthened, one will not be able to name names but have to merely know the accelerated manifestation of the arising and vanishing nama-rupa in quick succession. By knowing as such,vipassanā knowledge will be gradually enhanced.

With the immature knowledge ,ordinary worldlings who are devoid of the faculty of contemplating and noting do not realize or know every time pleasant or unpleasant feeling arises in them. The majority of them are wasting time thinking of something else or imagining other matters. Although they may know at times what they feel, they do not discern it as a phenomenon. They only know " I feel pleasant or fine" but real awareness do not even occur that these phenomena last only for a moment. They imagine and know that those feelings are all permanently everlasting, having false view of "self "or" I " as wrong view.

to be continued in Dhamma lesson (38 )contemplation of consciousness


Dhamma Lesson (36)

Right Mindfulness (satipaṭṭhana)


Right (Sati )


Mindfulness is guarding the six sense doors

Eye door , Ear door, Nose door, Tongue door,  Body touch door

--- Mind door

Why is Mindfulness needed ?

Mindfulness is the only way for the purification of the mind.

It is like a guard. Once a guard is removed from a guard house, anyone can enter a building.

As along as there is mindfulness guarding the six sense doors ( eye,ear,nose,tongue,body and mind ),unwholesome mental states such as anger,hatred, depression or sorrow cannot enter the mind, thus one's mind is pure.

Once mindfulness is lost, unwholesome mental states come into the mind.

Therefore,mindfulness is the ONLY way to keep the mind pure.

It can lead one to the attainment of Nibbanā.

The Buddha expounded four ways of practicing meditation.


Four Foundations of Mindfulness  (satipaṭṭhāna)

1-Mindfulness in contemplation of the  body (kayanupassanā)

2-Mindfulness  in contemplation of feelings (Vedanānupassanā)

3-Mindfulness in contemplation of consciousness (Cittānupassanā)

4-Mindfulness in contemplation of mental objects. (Dhammānupassanā)

5 mental power in balance (explained in  lesson -29)

Eight fold Noble Path ( explained in lesson 30 )


Mindfulness is observing every action, every feeling, every state of mind, every mind-object as it really is.


What is Right? What is Mindfulness ?

1- Ardour (ātāpī)

2-clear comprehension ( sampajanna )

3-constant mindfulness (satimā )-

--Mindfulness in present moment for every action, every feeling,every state of mind, every mental objects

Be Mindful all the time with wisdom

Actual noting of mind and matter as they arise, will lead to the proper Path of Right View , that is , insight knowledge or knowledge pertaining to the Noble Path.

Without  right mindfulness, it is impossible to attain higher knowledge of the Noble Path and Fruition.

Insight knowledge can never develop by just learning the definition and classifications of mind ( nāma ) and matter ( rpa) and reflecting on them. Insight knowledge will never develop without comtemplation of any of the meditation objects.


Constant Mindfulness

To develop Right Mindfulness, there must be constant mindfulness with regard to the following :

1- clear comprehension of every bodily movement

2-clear comprehension of every feeling whether  good,bad or indifferent which ever becomes obvious.

3- clear comprehension of every state of the mind

4- clear comprehension of every mind-object (dhamma) as it appears.

How does mindfulness overcome unwholesome mental state?

One can overcome unwholesome mental state by practicing mindfulness because the mind can only take one object at a time.

When there is a wholesome mental state,there cannot be any unwholesome mental state.

An unwholesome mental state can be abandoned by substituting it with mindfulness and clear comprehension.

Suppose one is angry with Mr X.

The mind will be preoccupied with angry though about Mr X who has become the object of the consciousness or mind.

However, if the mind is turned towards anger itself, Mr X does not exist in one's mind at that time.

One does not think about Mr X.The source of anger, Mr X has disappeared from the mind. Anger will disappear immediately after arising too.

One must be mindful of whatever mental state that arises. When mindfulness is strong, wholesome mental state will arise and the unwholesome mental state will disappear.

-21 kinds of mindfulness practice

Mahā Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta gives elaboration on the Noble Eightfold Path.

There are 21 kinds of mindfulness practice.

Contemplation of the body

1- Kāyānupassanā

Contemplation of the Body ( clear comprehension of every bodily movement )

1- Mindfulness of Breathing ( anāpāna ) -

-  -  -by watching the in breath  and out breath

Mindfulness of the breathing in and out or mindfulness of the rising and falling

of the abdomen belongs to this practice. While noting this home object, one

should note " stiffness", " warmth" , "tension" or " vibration" arises and becomes

prominent . One should at once note the phenomenon. Once it disappears, one

should fall back to the noting of the home object.

---be mindful as walking, walking , walking

2- Mindfulness of the Postures of the Body( Iriyāpathapabbaṁ )

-   -    -   mainly 4 postures noting the present action only- going or walking, standing , sitting, lying down.

Lying lying lying

sitting sitting sitting

For bodily actions, we note when we are going,walking,stopping,sitting,lying down etc. Noting should be continuous. All the bodily movements should be carefully noted in order to realize the true nature of all phenomena.


3- Mindfulness with Clear comprehension ( Sampajānappaba )

-  -  - the practitioner should note all the body movements involved in going forward or going back, looking straight on or looking askance , bending or stretching the limbs.

What is the meaning of Clear comprehension? ( sampajanna )

Four types

1- Clear comprehension of purpose (sātthaka sampajañña)

Clear comprehension of whether one's actions or speeches are beneficial or not.

One can manage to do or to speak of only what is beneficial.

2-Clear comprehension of suitability ( sappayā sampajañña )

It is to do or say only what is appropriate.

These two clear comprehensions are highly beneficial for mundane affairs as well

as for spiritual.

3-Clear comprehension of domain ( gocara sampajañña )

All one needs to do is to develop continual contemplation of arising mental and

material phenomena, which is domain of meditative awareness.

In the case of a meditator ( yogi) who is contemplating and noting every moment of walking as " wishing to walk" and "walking", the mind that intends to walk occurs distinctly and is conspicuous.

This continuously noting meditator knows distinguishingly between the mind wishing to take a walk which is a cause and the walking movement of  materiality (rupa) which is an effect.

There exists only the mind that wishes to walk and an aggregate of materiality which is composed of a series of slow and gradual movements.

4-Clear comprehension of non delusion ( asammaoha sampajañña )

Continuous contemplation and noting will lead to concentration and wisdom deepen and become powerful. Then, clear differentiation between mind ( nāma) and matter (r pa) becomes obvious.

Although one may not be able to describe what mind and matter are, one can clearly realize what is known and what is knowing and therefore realize the true nature of mind and matter.


One may realize that " going" arises from the intention to go and can differentiate intentions as the cause and going as the effect. The intention of " going" , the action of "going" and the action of " noting"are all passing. All these phenomena disappear quickly like the lightning. As continual contemplation deepens, it results in the clear and full realization of impermanence, suffering and no-self characteristics of all phenomena.

Every time it is noted as " wishing to go" or "going" etc: awareness with mindfulness takes place as" there is no individual being, " no self" - a living entity, no female or male but only an aggregate of rupa in the manner of going.

This knowledge will reject the belief which gives an impression of an "individual "or "a being". Attachment holding a view that it is " I" or " self" can be extirpated.

This clear knowledge is called Clear comprehension of non delusion.

4-Contemplation on the Thirty-two  constituent Parts of the Body-

1-head hair 2- body hair 3-nails 4-teeth 5-skin

- such as head, hair, body hair,teech, skin and so forth.

(explained in Dhamma Lesson (12 ))

-four great elements

5-Contemplation of the Four Primary Elements ( 4 Great Elements)


-  -  - the four great elements are

- - - 5-1 - the earth element ( pahavī dhātu )

- - -5-2 - the water element ( āpo dhātu)

- - -5-3- the fire element ( tejo dhātu )

- - - 5-4- the air element ( vāyo dhātu )

Earth element

While continually contemplating bodily actions, one will naturally begin to notice various

sensations such as hardness, softness and so on.

Hardness is very apparent and is the characteristic of Earth element.

Fire element

Sensation of heat or coolness is apparent , is the characteristic of Fire element.

Air element

Sensation of stiffness and motion are easily noted and is related to the Air element.

Water element

Lastly, when wetness is apparent, it is said to be Water element or the element of fluidity.

With continuous contemplating with wisdom, it becomes clear that there are four primary elements in the material body and that there is in fact no soul at all. These phenomena are continually arising and passing away, clearly see as impermanent( anicca), unpleasant ( dukkha) and non self ( anatta).

When one's knowledge matures and realizes thus, he may arrive at the first stage of enlightenment and become Sotapanna ( Stream enterer)

6-to -14-The Nine Cemetery Contemplations-

Clinging attachment will be eliminated every time noting is done.

Contemplating should be carried on in respect of internal (ajjhatta) and external (bahiddha)turn by turn alternately, it should be regarded as contemplating both the two kinds of internal and external in combination.

With these correct contemplation of vigorous and continuous mindfulness , the insight knowledge will develop progressively  stage by stage .

to be continued in next lesson (37)- contemplation of feeling


Dhamma Lesson ( 35)

Right Efforts for defilements

Samādhi group

Training in samadhi


Right mindfulness

Right concentration

5 mental power in balance (explained in  lesson -29)

Right Efforts

Right effort is the effort to prevent and eradicate unhealthy or impure qualities while cultivating and strengthening healthy ,skilful and wholesome qualities.

The are four right efforts.

Also known as 4 proper exertions, 4 great efforts,4 supreme efforts, 4 right endeavours, 4 right strivings.

What are the four right efforts?
(Sammappadhāna)- Samma = right    padhāna= exertions

there are four supreme efforts which can avoid defilements.

The four exertions (cattārimāni padhānāni) are summarized as:

  1. Restraint (saṃvara padhāna) of the senses.
  2. Abandonment (pahāna padhāna) of defilements.
  3. Cultivation (bhāvanā padhāna) of Enlightenment Factors.
  4. Preservation (anurakkhaṇā padhāna) of concentration, for instance, using charnel-ground contemplations.

The four right efforts are  associated with the Noble Eightfold Path's factor of " right effort" (sammā-vāyāma) and the Five Spiritual Faculties's " faculty of energy (viriya) and are one of the seven sets of Qualities Conducive to Enlightenment.

1- the effort to prevent UNARISEN  UNWHOLESOME states from arising

( just as one has to take care of one's health to prevent diseases from happening.)

- Stop doing evil deeds and not let them come back again.

2- the effort to DISPEL or abandon the ARISEN UNWHOLESOME states and PREVENT them from arising again .

3-the effort to promote or arouse the UNARISEN WHOLESOME states

such as generosity (dāna), morality (sila) and mind cultivation through meditation (bhāvanā).

4-the effort to maintain or develop the ARISEN (existing ) WHOLESOME states

to maturity and full perfection. When the initial or elementary sort of wisdom arises,

one should strive to develop higher level of insight and wisdom.

1- How could one make the effort  to prevent arising of UNARISEN unwholesome state?

One notices, hears or sees evil acts of killing, stealing or lying being done by others.


One must make an effort not to commit these unwholesome acts.

One puts in effort to develop moment to moment awareness by watching these

sense objects, one will be able to prevent arising of Unwholesome states. or any craving

or aversion.

2- How could one make the effort  to abandon the ARISEN unwholesome state?

-      --

Unwholesome states are done by Kilesa.( Mental defilements)

There are 10 kilesa or mental defilements. ( Greed, Hatred, Delusion, Conceit, wrong view,

doubt, sloth, distraction, shamelessness, fearlessness).

They afflict or torment the mind or they defile beings by dragging them down to a mentally

soiled and depraved condition.


All defilements are explained in detail in Dhamma Lesson (28)

Our mind is always bothered by defilements one after another again and again.

How many groups or types of mental defilements?

(1)-Gross defilements ( transgressive defilements )-   Vītikkama kilesas

This kind of defilement shows up in the form of unwholesome ACTION or SPEECH,

that is breaking the precepts.

( 3 evil Bodily and 4 evil Verbal  actions - explained detail in Dhamma Lesson 4)

(2)-Intermediate defilements (obsessive defilements ) - Pariyuṭṭhāna kilesas

These defilements arise only in the mind due to causes and conditions.

( 3 evil mental actions- explained detail in Dhamma Lesson 4)

They are not manifested through bodily actions or speech.

They causes uneasiness of the mind due to the presence of 5 mental hindrances

What are 5 mental hindrances

The hindrances are mental factors which prevent unarisen wholesome states from arising

and which do not allow arisen wholesome states to endure.

In Pali , called  (nīvaraṇa)

1- sensual desires ( kāmacchanda)

2- ill - will ( Byāpāda)

3- restlessness ( uddhacca ) and worry ( kukkucca )

4- sloth and torpor ( thīna-middha)

5-skeptical doubt ( vicikicchā )

In Abhidhamma, there are 6 mental hindrances.

6- Ignorance ( Moha , avijja )

This level of defilement disturbs the mind and prevents the mind from doing good deeds.

The first 5 hindrances are the major obstacles to the attainment of the Jh ānas.

The 6th hindrance is the major obstacles to the arising of wisdom.

(3)Subtle defilement ( latent or dormant defilement ) -Anusaya kilesas

This is a subtle kind of defilement which lies dormant in the mind, like sediments at the

bottom of a water jar.


-----latent defilement are like sediments

These defilements have not yet arisen but will arise when an opportunity arises.

They are most difficult to eradicate because the latent tendencies have been inherently

concealed in every being for the long duration of samsara , the cycle of rebirths.

2 kinds of latent defilements are

Santana-nusaya kilesas

-These kilesas are  inborn in beings and still remain to be removed. They can arise in any

existence when conditions are favourable because they have not been totally eradicated

by the Path ( Magga).